Basement in a private home - multifunction room and an important component in a number of outbuildings. The construction of permanent residence are stored not only supplies products and beverages, but also things seasonal. In the cellars and basements of country houses kept harvesting and conservation, seed for future crops. Proper basement unit in the house helps to unload the kitchen and other useful area, as well as to create optimal conditions for storage of vegetables. Basement cottage for well-thought-out project - it is a wine cellar, a room for fitness equipment, room for communication and boiler revision.
Table of contents:
- appointment basement
- The difference between the cellar and basement
- What is important to know about the construction of the basement after the construction of the house?
- How to start the construction of the basement in the house?
- Phased construction of the basement
Well-equipped basement sometimes takes a full basement, divided into separate rooms. There's even a mini-production can be equipped, for example, for the cultivation of mushrooms or ripening cottage cheese. However, if the building was not planned house with a basement, it is possible to restrict the height of furnishing a small space just above human height, for ease of use, equipped with shelves, niches and bays.
3h3m premises (or slightly more) is enough to store:
- blanks and conservation;
- harvest fruits and vegetables;
- garden tools;
- working tools;
- fishing tackle;
- Children's sledge (in the summer);
- Bicycle (winter);
- Folding garden furniture;
- seasonal and working shoes;
- a small supply of drinks.
When in the basement decided to build additional living or living area, mini-pool with a sauna and a massage chair, a wine cellar with a tasting place for guests - it is important to consider the insulation of the room. Well-equipped basement provides a central or local heating. However, living rooms is not recommended to be equipped in the basement of a wooden house for permanent residence - only reserve at the time of the large influx of visitors. And the place is a standard furniture and lighting is quite difficult. In the basement, it is important to consider the placement of lighting devices for the normal functioning of view, especially when a small handmade.
In private houses with stove heating in the basement is often equipped with a hole for the storage of coal and firewood to frosty winter there was no need to leave them on the street. For whatever purposes the cellar was not planned, it can successfully combine the functions of different rooms, but it is important to ensure there is a good waterproofing and maintain a good climate - a cellar in the house photo.
The difference between the cellar and basement
During the construction of the basement is important to determine its destination, that is important to decide - you need:
- warehouse space,
- lower mezzanine.
In many cases, do cellar for storage of vegetables, and at the same time keep the other things that spoil from excess moisture and low temperatures. But it is important to remember that:
- cellar in a private home - a repository of vegetables (stocks conservation and seed);
- basement - a storage room below ground level.
That is, part of the basement can be equipped with a cellar and a basement is not recommended in the cellar, there is a difference in their construction and landscaping. One-storey house with a basement - the classic version, but sometimes a cellar for vegetables build separately. Wall, in both embodiments, it is desirable to impregnate using antiseptic and antifungal composition from which not only spoil the contents of the repository, but needless underground room.
When trying to combine the basement and cellar, it is important to properly equip a room for storage of vegetables - compartments or piles should be low, for even airing roots and tubers. Vegetables "breathe", they are easier to view and discard the rot that is spreading rapidly on good products that cover no more than half the height. Can not be loaded into the compartments and piles unseasoned vegetables, with lumps of wet earth and signs of rot. It is important to consider good ventilation - vegetables will always give the air of the fumes, so be sure to make the cellars of a small window.
Tip: Be sure to equip the cellar or storage for vegetables or small dense mesh grille - the smell of vegetables attracts rats, mice, voles. Keep the temperature - Optimal conditions for storage of vegetables ranges from + 6 ° C and at high humidity and condensation ventilation should be enhanced further more often or ventilate cellar or basement portion.
In a dry and well-equipped basement with cellar do not spoil things do not start fungi and mold. If the ground water in the area - close to the surface, it is not necessary to equip the basement or cellar, even if in recent years, with flooding problems were not.
What is important to know about the construction of the basement after the construction of the house?
Stages of the basement of the construction process are well established specialized construction companies:
1. Excavation using technology.
2. Construction of drainage.
3. Delivery of construction materials and equipment to the site.
4. The construction of the basement under the arrangement basement.
5. Construction of waterproofing, summing communications, construction of walls and ceilings for the preparation of the construction of the 1st floor.
Some stages can be entrusted to professionals and do something on their own, using the knowledge, skills, physical strength and tools. But we can not break the building technology as a deviation from the rules leads to the instability of the structure. The foundation and a storage room inside - is the foundation of the structure, especially if it is a two-story house with a basement. Properly to begin construction of the basement, along with laying of foundation, but sometimes how to do in the house basement - think after a while.
In this case, usually limited to a small room in a house built between the foundation walls.
1. Cut out an opening in the floor (entrance hall, kitchen pantry or corridor), where it will be convenient to go down in the cellar.
2. Produce recess earth to a depth of 2 m and a width of not less 2h2m.
3. Equip floors (most often it is cement, but it is better clay plus a wooden board) and the walls (better brickwork), sometimes further strengthen ceiling beams (on the other side of the floor of a residential building).
4. Equip the shelves and walls, punched out a window for ventilation.
5. Fix the ladder and form lyadu floor level.
6. Fail electricity for the lighting of the underground facilities.
Disadvantages of this method of construction:
- land seizure is only possible with a simple hand implements;
- land has to pass through the living room;
- difficult to competently do waterproofing, drainage and ventilation;
- Lyada should be flush floor and handle thought so for her not to cling to when walking.
Tip: Ideal place - a pantry with a basement, but it is better to build a normal pantry in the house and a covered cellar for vegetables near the house. Sometimes cellar equipped with a built house with a separate exit to the outside from the outside of the house. It is dangerous that you have to destroy the foundation of the fragment, which threatens to collapse the house.
How to start the construction of the basement in the house?
If there was a question - how to make a cellar under the house, before the start of construction or on the stage of digging the pit, it is the most sound approach to the issue. This is justified when, during construction of the house make a strip foundation and the ground floor. Here and the foundation itself will be more thorough, and will be further useful area of the house, and the structure of subsidence is the least noticeable.
Before starting the construction of the basement in the house, it is important to take into account all the features of construction, because after the construction will not be able to fix anything.
1. It is important to remember about the pressure on the foundation from the soil, so the walls of the basement structured around doing enough reliable and strong. When digging a pit just better make it wider than the alleged foundation, and the gap between the wall and the ground overlay with a mixture of fatty clay and compacted - the basement is drier and warmer.
2. Construction of waterproofing and drainage system at the same time the foundation and walls of the ground floor - a very important point, because it depends on whether or not to wind up the dampness in the house.
3. Inside the basement must be made of heat and steam insulation, which is often provided by means of a clay floor or wall. If the foundation is dug to layer clay, gravel and pour sufficiently compacted sand. Further equip floors - reinforced concrete slab layers gidrostekloizola and wooden shields.
4. The walls and the bottom level of the basement, when the threat of flooding soil water make brick with reinforced concrete base. But this does not always save, so waterproofing additives will always be relevant.
5. A common way - dig a pit, build a basement walls and ceilings, build drainage and waterproofing and concrete the floor. However, in the wet ground is not always rational, and there is a possibility of non-uniform shrinkage, and even a small depth of the basement will not solve the problem.
6. Many construction companies immediately to the bottom of the pit is placed a monolithic concrete slab, and then erecting block foundation walls (basement sleep). But in this case the foundation slab is laid on the bottom few layers of waterproofing (bitumen + polyethylene film) for protection against ground water.
7. The arrangement of waterlogged soil is removed by the drainage system of the foundation perimeter - a trench, the bottom of which is covered with geotextile, on top of it a perforated pipe backfilled with gravel. On top of the geotextile covers gravel and soil, but it is important to comply with the trench slope to the water collector, and where excess water must be pumped out occasionally - it will save a basement from flooding.
8. Properly landscaped entrance to the basement - is the inability to moisture penetration from outside, such as after a heavy rain. This facilitates the threshold under which also laid out drainage. At the entrance, too, do sump (trench with the lattice), which is to divert water into the groove.
9. It is important that a staircase to the basement was secure and close the door or lyadoy that there will not penetrate unwanted guests-rodents. Structure Lyady - dual layer wooden shield therebetween paving insulation film, a tight fit will protect against specific odor.
10. The ventilation system will ensure a normal cellar microclimate with low humidity level - just a pipe coming out in the barred window. In the lowest side of the basement should be a small ditch, where the condensate drains.
11. The basement stairs to do a wide and comfortable and non-slip steps, to descend / climb comfortably without the help of a handrail, for example, when your hands are busy. However, it is desirable to equip a comfortable handrails and steps to do better is not high.
Only well-landscaped basement will be dry, without any smell of damp, and only it can be used as a full additional floor. It equip with various storage rooms and full room - boiler room, laundry room, sauna, wine cellar, billiard room, etc..
Phased construction of the basement
1. Prior to the start of construction it is important to figure out how to come close to the ground water cellars. If there is no need, then fill enough clay basement wall from the outside, and to provide the foundation waterproofing. Building materials for the construction of the basement in the basement elect respectively the construction site and soil characteristics.
2. The basement in the house does not necessarily make a high enough bit taller than a man, that is up to 2 meters. Excavation is better to make an excavator. Usable area is important to pre-plan - which will include a boiler, communications, storage and other facilities.
3. The temperature in the basement or cellar always low, it is close to the temperature of the surrounding soil, i.e. summer approximately twice lower than the average outside temperature, and in winter there is usually more than 0 ° C. When high-quality thermal insulation there will be dry and cool all the time, and in the basement of a residential heating is important to consider. Wall insulation made from the outside (clay) and the inside (foam) - the so-formed condensate from smaller temperature difference.
4. An important event - basement waterproofing and basement walls, which must be carried out according to the rules. But to start these works best with a drain arrangement (described above). There are internal and external waterproofing, as well as between the basement and the floors beneath the ground floor, be sure to pay attention to this part of the work. With the high humidity of the soil it makes sense for the waterproofing of walls to impose roofing material or polyethylene.
5. Soil moisture determines from which it will be made of the basement floors - compacted gravel and sand is enough for the base on the dry ground. The soil with a high moisture content requires waterproofing fatty clay or gravel impregnated with bitumen, is laid on top of it a concrete slab. You can use wooden boards from coniferous wood or tile (ceramic, paving).
6. Next is equipped with a basis under the first floor - the floor slab, which will be the ceiling of the basement, bearing beams can be left open, but it is important to treat all the insulation.
7. machinery ladder and enter the basement ends milestone. Next come the internal finishing works and the formation of functional premises basement.