Construction of timber house opens its owner a lot of advantages, chief among them environmental advocates selected material. Preceded by the construction of the house calculation process and the choice of material about it and talk on.
Table of contents:
- Home from a bar - the types and benefits
- How to calculate the bar: Features of conduct
- Recommendations for the calculation of timber house
- How much should lumber for house building
Home from a bar - the types and benefits
Making houses of timber is becoming increasingly popular. Since this material is harmless and even beneficial to health. Accommodation in a house made of wood has a beneficial effect on health. So exactly how wood is capable of regulating the optimal level of humidity in the room.
For the manufacture of solid wood lumber is used, from which cut out rectangular beams. The material most often used coniferous trees. Since they differ in the highest level of tar, which makes the material more durable and prevents it from decay, thereby increasing the duration of operation.
There are two types of timber:
- of conventional type;
Standard variety timber is a timber with a square or rectangular cross section. Procedure for manufacturing a shaped timber is more complicated, since it requires cutting locks, grooves and ridges. This timber is more convenient in the compound and the room which is made from it has the highest thermal insulation characteristics.
In relation to the structure and timber production technology release material:
- glued type.
For the production of the first embodiment timber requires whole trees from which and sawed lumber. To manufacture of glued timber boards type must have a certain size, which are glued and pressed together. For extra stability before rotting on board applied antiseptics, and then interconnected by means of resin. This type of timber is more resistant to cracking, but not fireproof. The variant of manufacturing a laminated board using different kinds of wood, such as spruce and pine. In the gluing process, important not to allow overlap between a fibrous parts of boards, as a board, in such a case, it becomes less durable.
Additionally, during the manufacture of laminated veneer lumber, boards on which defects are present are not used and replaced by new ones.
The most important and indisputable quality of any type of timber is its environmental friendliness. Since for its production uses solid wood, which has all the beneficial properties of natural wood. If we compare the jointing piece and the timber, the second embodiment is more environmentally friendly, since the resins used for bonding glued, secrete toxic substances in small amounts.
Although the use of glued more comfortable in architectural terms. Since using it possible to construct buildings of any shape. Standard length value is glued to 6 m, but there are cases where the logs reach a length of 15 m.
House of shaped timber to hide communication with cut special niches. Building, in the manufacturing process which uses bar jointing more fire resistant, as in the process of manufacturing each of the boards impregnated fireproof mixtures that give it incombustibility.
Among the disadvantages of the manufacture of timber house is isolated:
- due to improper drying of material, it is not capable of qualitatively fulfill all their functions;
- It requires continuous application impregnations improving its quality characteristics, otherwise the wood begins to rot and decay;
- Glulam has a very high cost, which is its biggest drawback, though it is entirely justified by the complexity of its manufacture and durable in use.
How to calculate the bar: Features of conduct
When buying timber the cost is measured kumobetrami. Therefore, to calculate glued or edging boards also use this unit. To determine the amount of material required, should be to start to find out its size. For example, a width of 15 cm, length of 6 m, and the thickness - 10 cm, the number of beams is determined by dividing by the volume of one cubic meter timber. One cubic meter of timber 11 comprises a timber.
Calculating the number of beams in the house involves determining the materials for its various sections.
The first calculated the ceiling joists and floor layout. In the construction of houses on unstable ground, it is advisable to replace the floor to the beams, monolithic base. Otherwise, the use of wood is recommended. The standard size of ceiling beams and floor type is 10x15 cm. Step of stacking not exceeding one meter. To maximize the strength of the beam should be embedded in one another in a vertical position. To calculate the total length and number of beams required perform the following steps:
- the total length of the house share a step of laying the beams and then subtract 1.
For example, if the house has a length of 6 m and a width of 5 m, a stacking pitch of 1 m, calculating the beams produced thereby: 5 / 1-1 = 4 pieces.
Beams manufactured in standard length, which is 600 cm, which coincides with the length of the house.
The next stage - calculation of the cubic capacity of the beam, for the construction of roof system. We offer an example of options for calculating straight gable roof type. In this case, setting the rafter pitch of 600 mm, and the inclination angle of - 45 degrees. material is used with a cross section of 10-15 cm for the manufacture rafters. Note that with the increase of the inclination angle decreases the amount of snow that accumulates on the roof in winter, and the load of the building is reduced, although the roof before the wind resistance also becomes smaller. Therefore, for regions with high wind conditions it is recommended to construct the roof with a low angle, and in places with a lot of precipitation in the form of snow is better to give preference to the roof with a high level of inclination.
In order to equip the truss system, you must first install two rafters, and then fix them with the timber. Next set rafter.
If the value of the house runs is 1000 cm, and the angle of inclination of 45 degrees, in order to calculate the length of the rafter feet necessary to calculate the sum of the other two sides in the square. This value will be 424 cm. For each triangle structures need to purchase 850 cm material.
To calculate the number of triangles, the total length of the roof, which is 1,000 cm, divide by stacking step - 60 cm, and subtract one, get 16 pieces. Now multiply the number of triangles on their length -. 16 * 850 = 13600 cm addition should not forget the run, which is 1,000 cm, it is added to the basic value of 145 m and obtained timber. If the timber section is 5x15 cm, for calculating the number of cubic meters must be 145 * 0.15 m * 0.5 = 10.9 cubic meters.
On the recommendations of experts, this value must be multiplied by one point and three tenths, to compensate for cuts and other working moments.
Calculation of load beam to the surface of the walls, gables and internal partitions made in relation to the building project. In carrying out the calculation should be based on their approach to the calculation of the material for the internal partitions and walls. All items must be converted to geometric figures and on the basis of formulas for each determine their area. If there are openings in the form of windows and walls, it is necessary to determine their area. From pre-calculated area of the opening area of the wall, subtract, multiply the value obtained in the thickness of the wall and turn the volume of material that will be needed for the construction of the wall. Calculating a value for each of the walls summarize the results obtained.
Calculation of the strength of the beam depends on its weight, which is influenced by rock and humidity. The latter value is determined by the percentage of water in the wood. The moisture determines the quality of the material drying and storage conditions.
Dry timber is called material passing drying process conditions, or stored in a warm and dry conditions for a long period of time.
Raw wood called the tree that begins to dry. If the material is present in the equilibrium moisture content, it refers to a type of air-dry wood. When storing the material in conditions of high humidity it takes the form of a wet or svezherublennogo tree.
Recommendations for the calculation of timber house
The construction of the house is using the timber is characterized by a light conducting calculations, compared with houses made of logs. In addition, the timber application opens master of the house a large number of options for finishing, both internal and external parts of the building.
In relation to the beam cross section is isolated materials: 12x12, 15x10, 18x18, 20x15, 15x15, 10x10, 14x14. The most optimum size of timber for house construction 15x15 cm. Because this is the kind of bar has an acceptable cost and high thermal insulation characteristics. In addition, the timber is easy to install and easy to operate.
The use of shaped timber with the section will allow to build a great house, which will serve its owner for many years. The only drawback of this bar serves its high cost, therefore, during the calculation of corrugated timber, should be extremely careful not to make mistakes and do not spend a lot of money.
For correct calculation of the amount of material by means of which you want to build a house, use the formula:
A * B * C = number of timber
A - the length of the wall;
B - height of the wall;
C - the material thickness.
For example, for the construction of houses, whose length is 8 m, and the width - 6 using 15x15 timber section, the calculation carried out by the formula: 2 (6 + = 28 m - perimeter dimension. Wall height is three meters, however this value is multiplied by the perimeter, we find 54 m. Now, the result is multiplied by the cross section of the beam, is 0.15 m, obtained 8,1 cubic meter. Therefore, it is the value of the amount of timber needed to build a house.
How much should lumber for house building
Factors by which the amount of lumber for the house depends on:
- the type of timber used in the construction process;
- number of beams in one cubic meter;
- the design of the house.
To calculate the amount of lumber for exterior and interior walls, using the algorithm:
1. Calculation of the perimeter of the building.
2. Multiply this value by the total height.
3. Multiply the result by the timber-section.
4. It turns out the number of cubic meter of material needed for the construction of the building.
This method helps to calculate the approximate amount of timber, for a more accurate calculation should calculate the amount of material for each wall separately, while taking into account the availability of doors and windows.
In the process of calculation, one should pay attention to the fact that the device of the first ring will require more material, because of its width should be increased. In this algorithm counting this condition it is not taken into account, so you want to apply a separate formula for calculating the first timber rim.
beam cross-section of the first ring should be chosen over the core, since this is the crown of the carrier and takes the full load of the building. Additionally, it requires additional processing using engine oil or antiseptic solution.
When the beam bending calculation is completed, the procedure should determine the number of pieces of timber for construction of houses. This value will help to save time in the process of material purchase. In addition, in this way can avoid fraud by the seller.
To discover the timber main values of quantities in one cubic meter, with the length of the material to 6 m:
- 10x10 cm consists of approximately 16.6 units;
- 10x15 cm - 11 pieces;
- 15x15 - 7 units;
- 10x20 - 8 pieces;
- 15x20 - 5.5 units;
- 20x20 - 4 pieces.
To determine the number of pieces in the timber, followed by a general value, e.g., 14 cubic meters, divided by the volume of one piece of timber in the cube. To calculate the required number of timber-section divided by the number of pieces in the same cube. For a standard timber size 15x15 cm, it is 0.13. 14 / 0.13 = 107.6 pieces.
When you install the number of pieces needed for the construction of the building is no need for precise measurement of each cubic meter, with the purchase of material. Enough material singler counting.
The height and width of the timber plays an important role in the construction and operation of the building. The tool bar higher mezhventsevye seams are reduced and the process of construction is accelerating. When choosing the optimum width is taken into account the need for a permanent or temporary residence in the house. The minimum thickness of timber recommended for construction of the building in which people will stay constant, is 20 cm. Moreover, for improved thermal insulation is used foam or mineral wool, laid a layer of 10 cm. If the planned building baths, the layer thickness should be increased to 16 cm.
In the process of building a country house in which people will live only in the summer time, to purchase timber enough cross-section 10x10 cm.
In carrying out the step of calculating the beam becomes an important factor in the preliminary design of the building. It is displayed in the project, both the external and internal appearance of the building, walls, doors and windows.
There are several options for getting the project:
- independent of its manufacture;
- Checkout specialists;
- buying on the Internet;
- the purchase of the project;
- the use of the finished project.
For Self-house project requires special skills to work with drawings. For its preparation is an important climate in which there is a house, the ground on which it is based, and other factors.
Therefore, the most correct solution is the hiring of professionals who are able to take into account all the individual characteristics of the site.
Remember that when calculating the timber for the construction of the house is better to buy the material with a small margin, than to stop construction work due to its lack.