Drainage system - a design for the collection of water on the land territory of the surplus. The structure regulates the water balance of the soil to create the necessary conditions for building a house, planting plants and trees. It consists of a trench and pipe wells and drainage pumps. system device is not complicated, and the strength of independent design and implementation.
- 1 Table of contents:
- 2 The components of the drainage design
- 3 Types of drainage systems
- 4 drainage design
- 5 The unit of drainage system with their own hands
- 6 rainwater drainage
- 7 Construction of drainage well under the sink
- 8 Typical errors in the formation of the drainage system
- 9 Tips how to make the drainage system
- 10 Maintenance of the drainage system
Table of contents:
- The components of the drainage design
- Types of drainage systems
- drainage design
- The unit of drainage system with their own hands
- rainwater drainage
- Construction of drainage well under the sink
- Typical errors in the formation of the drainage system
- Tips how to make the drainage system
- Maintenance of the drainage system
The components of the drainage design
The unit of drainage system is carried out in the first stage of building a house. That in consequence, not to turn the adjacent territory inside out.
Drainage system - it is an extensive engineering and technical network of pipes. They are interconnected couplings or stacked end to end.
Pipes for drainage systems are made from materials with a filtration capacity. For example, a polymer. He let the water, holding the hard rock, including soil. Due to this, the design does not clog, and does not require constant cleaning.
Wells or headers are placed on the system turns to the lowest currents at the site. The slope of the drainage system is aimed in their direction. To piped drains excess water. Through these components are produced and flushing design.
When the system is unable to cope with the drainage naturally apply drainage pumps. One of the end immersed in the well, and the outlet is directed in the future place of water flow. The models differ in performance and throughput capacity of the hose.
Types of drainage systems
Various types of drainage systems are suitable under different climatic conditions and requirements for the reliability and durability of the system.
A simplified method is considered open drain or surface option. The drainage system is laid around the house and on the site in the form of trenches with a bias. Usually, their depth does not exceed m, width - half a meter. For the strength design of the sides is filled with concrete. Channels are often used in highlands and rescue from melt, rain and surface waters. A disadvantage of the system is the need for constant cleaning.
Closed drainage system is a more advanced method of solution. Trench backfilled insoluble gravel, stones and broken bricks. After they fall asleep on top of sand. This design serves to filter water which flows down. In this case, coarse particles remain on the surface, so that the system is not clogged. A disadvantage of closed drainage have the limitations of the tank under the excess water. When heavy rainfalls will not be effective.
Durable and reliable embodiment is stacking corrugated plastic pipe network. Proper Laid drainage system as shown in the photo, guarantees the protection of excess moisture on the plot.
Consider laying the drainage pipes of the distribution system. It is based on general principles of drainage. The design will protect your home and adjacent land from precipitation and groundwater surpluses.
Calculation of the drainage system is to define a number of parameters:
- the depth of laying drainage,
- the distance between channels,
- slope drainage system,
- length and diameter of the pipes,
- place of water drainage,
- the amount of material required.
Parameters laying drainage system depends on the composition of the soil at the site. The maximum distance between the channels on soils of clay is 10 - 11 m, on light, friable surfaces - 22 m.
Location Drenov each other depends on the depth of the trench. The more laid pipe, the greater may be the distance between them.
A trench is dug to a depth of 0.5 -1.2 m depending on level foundation of the house, and the total slope portion size. Thus, the depth of the channel near the house equal to the level of the soles of his foundation. A system for every meter it has a slope of 1.5 - 2 cm. Therefore, the channel depth will be greater at level ground.
Having determined the required channel depth, multiply the indicator 10. It will be indicative of +/- 1 meter distance between their laying.
Accelerate drainage will allow small and dense network of trenches.
It depends on the pipe diameter its bandwidth. Than it already is, the more you need the angle of drains. In addition, the wide tubes are less prone to clogging. Commonly used materials diameter of 10 cm. On the portion 20 ar require 250 linear meters of pipe. A system for 50 ares - 620 m.
The width of the trench is determined by adding 40 cm to the diameter of the lining pipe.
Determine the location of the water drain. For these purposes, ponds and ditches dug wells in the lowest part of the plot.
For work you need the following materials:
- rubble of various sizes,
- Drainage pipe,
- inspection wells,
The unit of drainage system with their own hands
Build a drainage system can be your own or by hiring a team of workers on the site. If you decide to save money, consider creating it step by step:
1. Dig a trench shovel necessary for drainage. For large areas with no facilities will be a good option in the form of an extensive system of "Christmas trees."
2. Ram and align the channel bottom, to jump over it.
3. Pour the sand and fine gravel.
4. Cover the surface of the geotextile. The edges shall extend outwardly size sufficient to cover the width of the ditch with the entanglement.
5. Wash gravel and place it in the bottom layer of 20 cm.
6. Wrap drainpipe in geotextile, which serves as an additional filter. He will extend its operation with 3 to 5 - 7 years.
7. Place the tubes in the drains. Their joints lock couplings or special sealant, top, wrap in geotextiles.
8. In the joints of three or more drains, as well as every 50 meters, install manholes. Through them, made system flushing, eliminating contamination and control of drainage works.
9. Fill the structure over the gravel or crushed stone layer of smaller size 20 - 25 cm.
10. Sexes, left geotextile Cover the system.
11. Top layer lay fertile soil.
12. Use the collected water to irrigate or drain into the nearest ditch.
For effective drainage is necessary to properly install a drainage system and systematically wash it.
Drainage systems are used for the cottages, private homes, and gardening area.
Therefore it is necessary to build the system and drain for precipitation. To do this, place the point on the perimeter of the house drains under drainpipes.
In addition, place the surface trough to collect water. Cover them with decorative lattice. Precipitation in small trenches will go into the general drainage network. Such a scheme of drainage system diverts the flow of water from the house, its base and the adjacent territory.
Construction of drainage well under the sink
If necessary, drain holes to choose the place and its design. Usually it is at the lowest point portion. Allowing excess water to move it under the power of natural forces.
The well consists of a manhole, shaft and base.
For the arrangement of holes for excess water and rubber are used reinforced concrete structure. The latter are an easy and convenient option to install. Products are placed in the soil and they hermetically join the pipe. But they are expensive, so consider economical variant construction of drainage wells.
Proceedings of the concrete forming the container under the outlet:
1. Dig a rectangular or square hole under the well.
2. At the bottom of a large roll in the sand and tamp it.
3. Check surface flatness using the level.
4. Construct formwork of boards.
5. Knead and fill it with concrete in the formed shape.
6. Proarmiruyte base well grid of 10 by 10 cm.
7. While the concrete is not thickened, then insert the corners of the base 4 of the rod to simulate the structure walls.
8. After the material thickens formwork formed at the ends.
9. On the reinforcement mesh is stretched and the system is concreted.
10. After 3-4 weeks of dry material and the shuttering is removed.
11. The system is connected to the well.
12. Sergio put durable cover.
For the construction of the intermediate drainage wells using a similar method.
Typical errors in the formation of the drainage system
Carefully approach the drainage device for the site to avoid common errors:
- use is not suitable for the material pipe or diameter,
- not a right angle system,
- neglect filter dusting crushed stone and gravel,
- not implementing water withdrawal from the drain well.
Tips how to make the drainage system
1. If the portion located on the flat surface, not near the drain ditch, the pumping station set. In such conditions - it's the only reliable way to bring all the excess water.
2. When a large drainage area and forming multifunction system, it is better to ask for help in the art.
3. Install the drainage wells at the perimeter of the system. They allow you to see the depth of the groundwater and the efficiency of the drainage works.
4. Before the device drainage strengthen waterproofing the basement of the house. For this purpose, reinforcing mesh and bitumen mastic.
5. The surface evenness when trenching is determined using a laser leveling.
6. For the backfilling channel is used for the grit size greater than the holes in the drainage pipes. What prevents them from clogging up the auxiliary material.
7. As inspection wells using a vertically arranged pipe segments. On top of their close the cap.
8. Manholes well set diameter of 50 cm. This value is enough to bend down and clogged wash system.
9. geotextile is fixed on the surface of pipes by means of a polypropylene or hexanoic twine.
10. Stacking pipes usually made from July, when the surface water extend.
11. The process takes 3 to 6 weeks. Do not leave the trench dug for the winter, bring the work to the end.
12. Before starting work, check out the training video device drainage system.
Maintenance of the drainage system
You need proper maintenance for the proper functioning of the drainage system. Namely:
- Inspect drains and wells at least once every three years,
- systematically monitor the water level in the manhole
- clean the pipe as required by means of water flow,
- keep wells closed, in order to avoid falling into the litter system,
- pumps water with sand and soil particles from the drainage wells. To do this, mix them up and use the pump.
- make sure that the water level in the system did not reach the entrance - exit pipe.