The quality and duration of operation of any building is determined primarily by its foundation. should hold a series of preparatory work aimed at preparing the site to carry out the construction work before the arrangement of the foundation. About that, how deep to dig the foundation and how to prepare the ground under its arrangement, talk about it further.
- 1 Table of contents:
- 2 The soil under the foundation: especially training
- 3 How to dig the foundations properly: the preparatory stage of work
- 4 Strengthening soil under the foundation: the technology of work
- 5 Features of the analysis of the soil under the foundation
- 6 How to dig a trench for the foundation: Technology And Features
Table of contents:
- The soil under the foundation: especially training
- How to dig the foundations properly: the preparatory stage of work
- Strengthening soil under the foundation: the technology of work
- Features of the analysis of the soil under the foundation
- How to dig a trench for the foundation: Technology And Features
The soil under the foundation: especially training
Before you go to the peculiarities of soil preparation to the arrangement of the foundation, we suggest to familiarize with its basic types. Distinguish Foundation:
- pile type - its setting is appropriate in the case where there are leashes;
- the foundation of a solid type - settling on any soil with a fairly low level of groundwater;
- columnar form of foundation settling in when plans to build a light on the structure of the building, in the form of technical buildings, small garage, etc .;
- foundation belt type - the most popular with low-rise buildings.
The most popular material in the manufacture of foundations - concrete structure reinforced with metal inserts. That it is able to provide the necessary structural strength and saves it from external factors such as moisture, temperature swings.
The main advantage of concrete - getting a single monolithic foundation, capable of withstanding heavy loads.
However, an important process is the foundation of everything - training base for its construction. To discover the key recommendations on the preparation of the soil under the foundation:
- in the presence of soft soils and a significant burden on them, it is recommended to give preference to the type of pile foundation;
- columnar type of foundation is suitable for sufficiently strong and durable type of soil;
- If underground water present on the surface is uneven, it is recommended to prefer solid foundation type, which is laid on the surface of a plate;
- In all other cases, we recommend using the arrangement of belt type foundation.
Some types of soil and geological studies carried out before the construction on the home, suggest improvement of two or three different bases under one building.
Correctly and efficiently made the foundation is the key to long-term operation of the house. Therefore, it can not save in any case.
Checking ground under the foundation includes a first determination of the depth of soil freezing. If this is not done, the ground buckling can not be avoided, as it will lead to the destruction of the integrity of the foundation and later the entire building.
In order to calculate the depth of frost penetration address, perform these steps:
- determine the climatic characteristics of the region;
- determine the depth at which laid the main communication system;
- calculate the load of the building;
- determine the properties and characteristics of the soil.
Thus, in determining the optimum depth of the basement, you should consider all of these factors, which will help to avoid its destruction under the influence of heaving soil.
If in the ground there is no predisposition to heave and the height of the groundwater level is high off the ground, it is permissible to equip the foundation above that figure. However, in this case, be sure to use the calculations of experts.
If the building has a basement or a basement, then in that case, care should be taken on the organization of a quality waterproofing. At the same time, a concrete structure add special fillers to improve its resistance to moisture.
How to dig the foundations properly: the preparatory stage of work
Before working on the foundation base, experts are developing a project, which sets out all the individual characteristics of the work in this area.
The main part of the foundation is a base which has a settling. It has the form of pillows, on how well pad construction, the foundation depends on the strength and its ability to withstand heavy loads.
During the construction of the most popular ribbon type of foundation, there are two types of pillows:
- pad on the basis of the concrete filler composition;
- pillow bulk type.
Therefore, in determining the depth of the foundation, it is necessary first to determine the size and type of pad.
The main functions assigned to prepare the foundation for the construction of:
- provide minimal contact base and the foundation sole;
- create a good load-bearing capacity of the soil on which the building is constructed.
Instructions on how to prepare the ground for the foundation is the following:
1. Carry out work on the layout space basement location. Clean the surface from excessive vegetation, foreign objects and debris.
2. The maximum purification bottom foundation is able to conduct a bulldozer, which cuts off the upper part of the soil from the surface.
3. The next step is important enough holding soil compaction under the foundation. For these purposes will need to have a cam or a smooth hard roller or special tamping machines.
4. Held active process must gradually compacted parts one first portion of the foundation, and then the next. Please find tips on soil compaction conduct for the foundation:
- sandy soil compaction using vibration;
- Lesovoy to compact soil subsidence should first fulfill its soaking, bay pits previously prepared with water, and then fill them with drainage;
- to perform a deep sealing device to be used simultaneously wetting and ground vibration of;
- piles on the basis of soil or sand can help seal in silty soil or weak;
- for sealing the peat soil should be used vakumirovanie or electric osmosis.
5. The next step is optional for all types of soil, however, in some cases, it is simply necessary. It consists in carrying out the humidification or dehumidification ground in the implementation of its compaction.
Strengthening soil under the foundation: the technology of work
After preparing the ground, and everything in it should be a procedure laying excavation foundation gravel. Note that the width of the basement at this stage should be greater than the standard width of the foundation, which will be filled with concrete mortar. The difference between the values should be 10-20 cm, depending on the depth of the foundation.
To arrange a bed of gravel under the foundation should perform these actions:
- to lay a cushion of sand, its thickness up to 10 cm;
- Pour the substrate with water and well compacted;
- gravel bed, the layer thickness of about twenty-five centimeters;
- compacted surface, add gravel if necessary.
In order to build a foundation of sand cushion, be sure to perform these steps:
- take care of the arrangement of the required size of the pit;
- produce leveling the bottom of the pit;
- put in a sand pit, 200 mm thick, gradually adding water to make its compacting;
- watch carefully the job;
- Moreover, one should not forget the levelness and smoothness of the obtained coating, add the sand, if necessary, to cushion has reached the desired thickness;
- start reinforcement procedure and arrangement of the formwork for pouring.
What are the advantages of arrangement of pillows of sand for the foundation:
- the foundation element withstands before compression, protects soil from the foundation of the impact;
- possible option of replacing the soil under the foundation - Sandy;
- with sand can achieve perfect flatness at the bottom of the pit;
- sand increases the soil resistance to shrinkage and gives it added strength;
- used to protect the metal reinforcement from humidity, that is, it performs a waterproofing function.
Please find tips on arrangement of pillows of sand before digging a trench for the foundation:
- for the manufacture of cushion sand gravel is recommended to use a coarse sand or coarse fraction of sand from the river to the average fraction;
- Divide the width of the pit in which is laid sand for three theft, the value obtained attain to the level of maximum thickness of the sand layer, which settling under the base;
- recommend laying the sand in the form of a trapezoid, that is, the pillow should be to the top of the foundation to expand and shrink to the bottom.
Features of the analysis of the soil under the foundation
To conduct soil samples under the foundation, be sure to seek professional help, however, if you have such a possibility does not exist, then we propose to consider the recommendation of an independent analysis of the soil:
1. Take some soil from the place where will be located the foundation. Sprinkle it on paper. Take care of the removal of the soil of foreign inclusions in the form of stones, debris or roots of plants.
2. Take the atomizer with the help of spray water onto the soil surface. One part of a four-three-liter glass jars filled with soil.
3. The third part of the banks, given the kidney, fill with water. To this composition is recommended to add a teaspoon of money just for washing dishes. Do not add to the shampoo or liquid soap.
4. Next, you must close the jar and shake it for ten minutes. Thus, primer to divide into several components mineral substances.
5. Leave the bank alone for three days. Further, the process of sedimentation occurs first large and then small pieces of soil.
6. With a marker after you have left the bank, mark the level at which the sand settled. After two hours, it should be noted the level of sedimentation sludge inclusions.
7. After the water acquire transparency, should be marked clay. The latter mark is set on the third day, however, if the three days the water remained murky, the Bank should leave a maximum of seven days.
8. Record measured by tagging the marker value. This is followed to calculate the percentage of each of the components in the soil, and on the basis of his calculations are carried out, the depth and type of foundation, develop the construction of the building.
General recommendations for the definition of the type of soil:
- sand settles to the bottom for one minute after the bank left alone;
- sludge settling time from 15 minutes to one hour;
- clay settles longer, for several hours.
How to dig a trench for the foundation: Technology And Features
Soil analysis to determine how much to dig the foundation. After the answer to the question how deep to dig the foundation found, proceed directly to the performance of work, the essence of which is as follows:
1. To carry out the work should be carried out calculations, the accuracy of which is measured in centimeters.
2. The whole cycle of works, which includes excavation, construction of two types of pillows, soil preparation, etc. carried out continuously in the same season.
3. Note that the main guarantee of the proper operation of the foundation is to ensure its protection from moisture. For this purpose, it is necessary to provide high-quality waterproofing.
4. It should not be at the expense of saving building materials to reduce the size of the foundation, as this is a very important part of the building, which accounts for most of the load during its operation.
To manually digging a trench for the foundation, will need to have:
- device for tamping the soil;
- wheelbarrows, by means of which the land will be exported;
Before digging the foundation for a house, you should decide on its size and make a layout for it, take advantage of our recommendations:
- to mark the site will need to have a peg, which are installed at the corners of the foundation first and then around the perimeter;
- Pull the string, which will serve as a guide to determine the evenness of the foundation.
Digging the foundation price for the execution of these works depends on their size and the depth of the foundation. How to dig the foundation should be determined based on the characteristics of the soil and the total load on the surface of the building foundation.
There are two ways by which the digging a foundation:
The choice of embodiment depends on the individual buildings, the possibility of employment of machine equipment and the depth of the excavation.
Digging foundations videos: