If you have decided to acquire a vacation property, you probably have heard of finished wooden houses turnkey. Completely ready to move in the chamber's going to the enterprise, and then transported by special technique on your site. If you decide to buy a finished house, you can immediately see the results - your future housing, but not in the photo, in the "live". All that you will worry, this summing up of the foundation under the house ready.
- Fill strip foundation
- Preparing to fill
- arrangement of excavation
- Installing formwork
- Laying fixtures
- Pouring the foundation
- The construction of pier foundation
- Preparatory work
- Marking territory
- excavation device
- Formwork and reinforcement
- installation of grillage
Fill strip foundation
For the finished house to choose foundation is not too difficult. A single-storey wooden house is relatively easy, so the base can be made melkozaglublennym tape. If you're stopped their choice on heavy two-story house of logs, keep in mind that it requires the creation of a sunken strip foundation below the depth of soil freezing. Let us consider how to pour a strip foundation.
Preparing to fill
Before you start to pour a strip foundation under the house ready, you need to perform a series of preparatory work. The first thing to do is to carry out a geodesic survey of the site, to determine the type and depth of soil freezing, the number and location of groundwater. This is followed, in accordance with the results to determine the correct load for the next foundation. Remember that at this stage of the work is not worth saving.
Once the project is ready, it is possible to start the preparation of the land. Clear the area of excess debris and you can proceed to markup. Strictly in accordance with your project that shows how to fill in the foundation of the belt type for your future home, make application to the land border of the foundation.
Markup typically produced by a cord (fishing line, rope, wire) and wooden pegs. This is done as follows:
- Determine the future structure of the axis;
- The first angle is marked with a plumb;
- For the construction of the second and third angle perpendicular to the first corner of the stretch cords;
- With gon built fourth angle;
- All the angles are verified by measuring the diagonals;
- In the corners are driven pegs, and then pulled the fishing line.
Thus, the outer contour of the foundation you ready. The same principle is built the inner loop, keeping distance from the outside of the project layout. The work itself of marking is an important part of the casting process of construction of the foundation under the house ready, because if not properly marking fee will be obliquely detached house, which you do not want any builder.
arrangement of excavation
Before dig a pit for the foundation, it is necessary to study on the territory of your land height differences. It recommended count trench depth or pit under ground with the lowest point. This will give an opportunity to prevent elevation changes finished basement. When digging with the same purpose it is necessary to make sure that the walls were strictly vertical, and the very bottom of the trench - the most smooth. Typically, the trench depth for small cottage equal to 0.4 meters.
Before pouring strip foundation trench must be prepared in a special way. On the bottom of the sand arranged a special "pillow". It will provide an opportunity to reduce the load on the foundation in the offseason, while distributing it to the entire area of the finished home base. It is necessary that the layer of sand was not less than 15 centimeters. Pour the sand in layers, with each layer must be aligned and ram lightly moistened with water.
Can instead take gravel sand which will give the same effect, only the layer thickness must be less than half of it than with sand. Top "cushion" must lay a waterproofing material, for example, polyethylene or roofing felt. It will give additional strength to the foundation structure.
Before you pour the foundation for the finished house, you need to create the formwork. This design is necessary to create the shape of the casting, which will be located above the surface of the trench. With the help of the formwork will strengthen the walls of the trench, thereby preventing their shedding. If desired, you can rent professional formwork construction or purchase them. And it is possible to erect the formwork from scrap materials (metal, boards, thick plywood) independently.
First we need to fasten shuttering panels so that the cap screws or nails were inside the formwork. This will give the opportunity to a smooth wall of the foundation. Before you start filling strip foundation formwork must be set so that the surface of the trench, she performed no less than 30 centimeters. With cord inside the formwork must be made level layout to which you want to pour concrete.
Once installed shuttering, reinforcement packing produce. You should tie the reinforcing bars, which have a diameter of 0.8 - 1.2 cm, with a wire. The size and frequency of the grid cells selected in advance, but enough for small buildings will be a grid cell with a side of about 30 centimeters.
For the foundation of a better steel mesh is not used, as may occur in areas of welding corrosive effects. This design also would be bad to take the load on a bend. At the bottom of the valve stack so that she does not touch the ground anywhere. Reinforcing structure after filling of the foundation must be completely inside the monolith, which ensures protection against corrosion and imparts additional strength to the base.
A mesh stack better on small props of stone or brick, the height of which should be around 5 centimeters. The same distance must be between the walls of the trench and the edges of the reinforcing mesh. This completes the preparatory stage, and then you can already fill the foundation for the finished house.
Pouring the foundation
The process of filling strip foundation is accomplished in stages. Concrete is necessary to fill the layers, their thickness should be about 20 centimeters. It is necessary that each layer of concrete held the entire length of the trench, as the filling is often much will reduce the strength of your design. Filled layer well tamp special equipment before the "jelly" on the surface.
This is done to prevent the formation of voids in the low tide. After each layer must rattling wall formwork, it gives the possibility of air bubbles which remain in the solution, to rise to the surface, thereby reducing the risk of formation of voids.
Number of concrete layers will depend on the height of the foundation. After tamping the last layer must align special trowel or "trowel" - a tool like a mop. Further, the foundation reinforcement pierced in several places to ensure that released excess air.
After the concrete has little sits down, 2-3 hours is necessary to sprinkle the surface of a thick layer of sawdust. They will not give the top layer of concrete to dry and protect the surface itself from various external influences. Also, instead of Sawdust can be applied covering material or burlap. Strip foundation under the house ready to dry for about 3 weeks. Then, after this period, dismantle the formwork, remove the dust and make the installation of your home.
The construction of pier foundation
Pier foundation is a structure consisting of the support pillars type, which are installed in the main points of the structure. Their main location is the intersection regions of the walls, corners, and the elements of the building structures which are load-bearing. If you have stopped on the construction of pier foundation under the house ready, it is necessary to take into account some features of working with columnar base.
The device pier foundation under the house ready without the enjoyment of its binding to the construction plan. Some other types of foundations into the ground can be laid without the project finished house, but pier foundation requires preparation and consideration of all structural parts. When calculating the foundation necessary to take into account the area of the foundation of the house. It is essential that the foundation area exceeded it on each side for at least a few meters.
Installing the columnar base is a seasonal operation that is best completed before the onset of cold weather. Most interesting is that in the cold pier foundation deforms easily if it is unloaded, which could lead to its complete disrepair until spring. Therefore, in spring again becomes necessary to re-fill pier foundation.
At the construction site preparation for the installation of the foundation you need to remove all the vegetation layer from the area where the house will be, and pay attention to the characteristics and composition of the soil, located in the area of the construction site. Remember, if the soil at the construction site rather strongly saturated with water (or peat yl) or the area characterized by a large height difference, not recommended for use as a pier foundation base.
If the soil in your area has a tendency to buckle, it is necessary to build a pier foundation with caution, as improper installation of the foundation soils on intumescent effect on the state of the finished building. Finding vegetation beneath the clay, it is required to close the bag of sand or gravel. It is also necessary to remove from the site of the stones, roots, large debris, etc. to a dedicated area under the base it was flat. Pit filled with sand or gravel, prominent places are smoothed.
Pier foundation for the finished wooden house is filled in various ways that depend on the type of materials used as supporting pillars. Supporting columns are made of the following materials: bricks, rubble stone, metal, asbestos-cement pipes, concrete and reinforced concrete. Most of these materials is durable monolithic reinforced concrete, which has a truly indefinite operation.
For the construction of the foundation necessary materials are: sand, boards for shuttering, reinforcement, brick and rubble. To set the foundation is better to take concrete grade B25 or B15, a cement must be used 400 minutes. Next, you need to do layout the future columnar base. For this purpose, set on the edges of the site bars of wood with a pitch of 2-3 meters, which is mounted on the rack.
On these rails leave a mark foundation and parts of the pit, on which work will begin soon. To accommodate the parts you can use ropes and cords, which extend between the sides castoffs. Particular attention should be paid to the accuracy of the application of marks that indicate the intersection of walls of the future, because the base of the pillars will be located in such places.
Pit for the pier foundation digs usually using a special technique or shovel. When digging the most important thing to comply with the direction of the vertical walls. Foundation pit must be dug, given the depth of soil freezing, because the supporting pillars that are in it will be placed in the soil should be included in the half of the value of the depth of freezing. If the depth of freezing is more than one meter, it is necessary to reinforce the base wall slope of the slab in order to neutralize the earth shedding.
Before pour foundations for the finished building, must fill a special pit on the bottom layer of gravel and sand, which protects the soil from a cold swelling. When filling pillows thoroughly moistened and tamped, then covered with roofing material to prevent casting works with the absorption of water from the concrete in the ground. Once made a pit, you can proceed to the installation of formwork.
Formwork and reinforcement
Best of all formwork for columnar base is selected from wood, because metal subsequently grabbed tightly with a sealing compound. Installation of the formwork is performed in accordance with a vertical axis, it is necessary to control the plumb. Formwork itself must have a safety margin in order to able to keep the weight of the concrete mix.
Next is the installation of valves, which are mounted vertically on a few bars, the past tightened clamp or wire. Keep in mind that when using a clamp structure of the valves is grasped from the top, center and bottom. It is essential that the fitting exceed the base height of 20 centimeters, it is necessary for the further welding grillage.
installation of grillage
For the manufacture of the filler mixture need to buy cement, but we must remember that detrimental to its functional characteristics affect shelf life. Therefore, it is recommended that before purchasing a robot base itself fabrication. Otherwise, you may need a new cement foundation and the price for the finished house in this case increase.
The obtained mixture was poured concrete made portionwise, thus forming a layer about 30 cm thick. In order to obtain an optimum strength support, it is necessary to provide the desired consistency of the sealing mixture, which should not be too thick or you can say the contrary - fluid. With the help of a vibrator made insulation layers.
Forming the supporting pillars between a need to seal the monolith. This system is called a solid raft. Before its manufacturer should all support check for compliance with the desired height. Low support must further increase using grout.
Reinforcement rods which protrude from the supporting pillars are installed in a system with a wire with a thick section or fittings. Output valves to cook with jumpers and set on top of the formwork with reinforcement frame. Such a construction is filled with concrete and removed when full hardening of the concrete mix.
Thus, the pier foundation is the most popular when it comes to ready-light low-rise house. However, if the terrain has large variations in height, and the soil is heavily saturated with water, this variant will have to give. Heavy multi-storey buildings will have to build a strip foundation - a recessed below the level of soil freezing or melkozaglublenny, which is also great for the device ground floor or basement.