Pouring the foundation - a very important process, the quality of performance is directly the life of the whole house depends. There are several technologies and pouring circuits foundation, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages. And how to pour the foundation under the house with their hands will talk further.
- 1 Table of contents:
- 2 Pouring of the foundation during the summer: features and benefits
- 3 Features fill the basement in the winter
- 4 Cooking Tips for pouring the foundation of the solution
- 5 How to improve solution quality
- 6 Equipment for the casting of the foundation under the house
- 7 Preparations for pouring a foundation with his own hands
- 8 Recommendations and instructions for filling the foundation with his own hands
Table of contents:
- Pouring of the foundation during the summer: features and benefits
- Features fill the basement in the winter
- Cooking Tips for pouring the foundation of the solution
- How to improve solution quality
- Equipment for the casting of the foundation under the house
- Preparations for pouring a foundation with his own hands
- Recommendations and instructions for filling the foundation with his own hands
Pouring of the foundation during the summer: features and benefits
The foundation is the support of the building and its manufacture should be approached with great responsibility. With self-construction of the house, be sure to pick the right time of year for pouring the foundation. Since weather conditions play an important role in the quality of the facilities.
Pour the foundation at any time of the year. However, each of these castings has the features:
1. Pouring of foundation in the autumn season.
In autumn the foundation protect from excessive moisture. For this purpose, already covered with the dried coating film of polyethylene. In addition, the inside of the formwork is covered with cellophane, improves flatness and waterproofing properties of the foundation.
The work has its advantages and disadvantages in the cooler seasons. During this period, the solution sets and dries poorly, but at the same time there is a time for its installation. In addition, there is no need for additional sealing arrangement.
2. Features of summer fills the basement - the main enemy of the concrete at this time of year is the direct solar radiation. Under its influence from the foundation to quickly evaporate the water, to prevent the process, concrete is constantly moistened for two weeks.
Summer fills the basement - the ideal solution. Build a trench in this year quite easily, the concrete does not freeze in the winter. However, to perform the work recommended to choose cloudy weather.
At high temperatures and low humidity operate quickly. In addition, when the summer pouring follow the recommendations below:
- Use a waterproof membrane that prevents excess moisture in the soil care;
- attract the largest possible number of workers, in order to get the job done as soon as possible;
- make the solution more humid, so its service life is extended.
Features fill the basement in the winter
Pour the foundation at this time of year is difficult. First of all, there are difficulties with the digging of the trench. If there is snow on the site, delete it. Next, cover the place of location of the foundation waterproofing film black. Thus, under the influence of sunlight the soil has warmed.
For the manufacture of winter formwork often use styrofoam. This material is flexible, without fear of frost and further insulates foundation.
Particular difficulties arise with the production of concrete mortar in the winter season. At too low a temperature of the water freezes, to prevent this, the composition is heated constantly. Note that at a temperature of -15 or below, by pouring the foundation work is carried out. Identify several ways to prevent freezing of water in the foundation. Please find them:
- performance of the heating section and the foundation - concrete structure and foundation for several days after pouring heated air guns;
- use of available tools for heating - after filling of the foundation is coated burlap, after poured manure or turf;
- the third method is based on the use of special additives such as table salt, it is added directly to the water solution in the ratio of seven to one, so called cold concrete, it is not prone to freezing, but also dries longer than usual.
To improve the quality of the solution, was added thereto plasticizers, to prevent freezing of water. Pouring the foundation in the winter - it is a real process, however, if it is possible to carry out this work in a different time of year, be sure to use it.
Cooking Tips for pouring the foundation of the solution
To obtain a high-quality solution for pouring the foundation, we must first find the right its components. The most important components of concrete - sand with water. Additionally, fillers are used as sand and coarse material in the form of crushed stone, gravel, pebbles. Also, a concrete solution is added special substances, improving its strength characteristics.
Cement - basic components, the main function of which is to connect all components in a single composition. Recommended acquire cement just prior to pouring, as active material is highly hygroscopic, readily absorbs moisture and solidifies.
We recommend the use of cement grade 400 or 500. To obtain high-quality concrete, in this case, it is possible to obtain high-strength composition. Water - dilutes the concrete mix to desired consistency. Use clean water only, with no additional impurities and salts.
Note the proportions of water, insufficient quantity of concrete is very difficult to fit on the surface, and the excessive - mass does not have the desired strength and crack with time.
If the water connect directly with the cement and apply such a composition to the surface from the excessive voltage will start cracking. To prevent this process, increasing the strength and reducing the cost of concrete, are used as fillers sand and gravel.
Use only clean sand without clay inclusions. Ideal - river sand, pre-washed and dried.
As a coarse aggregate chippings used more often. This material must also be clean, and all the stones - in different size. Thus, reducing the number of voids in the coating solution and increases strength.
What follows is an equally important process - the selection of concrete proportions. Standard cement ratio circuit, gravel, sand and water is 1 to 2 to 4 to 0.5. In the particular construction of data proportions determined by the type and characteristics of concrete sand, when using moist material - the amount of water is reduced.
When excessive quantity of cement in the composition, it is too rigid, large amounts of sand - solution was grasped bad, the presence of excess water - results in poor adhesion of the coating and high porosity. Therefore, strictly observe the proportions in the preparation of the solution.
How to improve solution quality
Even with an ideal ratio of proportions, some embodiments of a concrete solution in need of improvement. In order to make the composition more ductile, thereby reducing the amount of water, using various plasticizers.
Using the solution becomes water-repellent properties of the blisters is reduced and the time of its curing. In winter, added to the solution various salts that alter the properties of concrete.
Moreover, the obtained coating quality is also determined by method of its installation. Most solid composition is obtained when subjected to vibratory mechanisms solution. With the help of styling is done as quickly as possible.
Equipment for the casting of the foundation under the house
The number and type of devices for filling the basement are individual and depend on many factors, such as:
- time of the year for work;
- type of foundation;
- the dimensions of the trench;
- individual features of the structure.
Most often, in the process of pouring the foundation used for reinforcement mesh, gutter, lighthouses.
Furthermore, when manufacturing an independent solution for its use batch mixer. It should also take care of the tanks through which the solution is fed directly to the trench.
Using the mixer significantly increases the quality of the solution, making it possible a homogeneous consistency. Optimal variant for pouring the foundation, concrete mixer, capacity 50 liters. For a process of continuity, we are sure to perform the work at least three times.
Mixer - automatic concrete mixer, which delivers to the site ready-made concrete factory. To fill such a foundation need no more than a few hours. The machine is connected a special chute through which the solution was fed directly into the trench.
If there is no possibility of the entrance to the site, the device is used in the form of a concrete pump. This unit takes the solution to a distance of about 50 meters. Special hose with a hose as accurately distributes the solution.
Preparations for pouring a foundation with his own hands
Several distinct phases of construction of the foundation:
1. Study geological site characteristics. Strip foundation under the house is filled only with dry soil. If there is heaving, be sure to stop at other options.
2. Application Markup. Plot previously leveled and cleaned of debris and vegetation. Using pegs and cord do the layout of internal and external basement location. For the construction of walls also make markup. Pay attention to the corners of the foundation, on the correctness of their position depends on the evenness of the future structure. Check the layout level.
3. Excavation and trench. Pre-determined depth of the foundation, which depends on the type of soil, characteristics of its freezing, load on the foundation and the weight of the building. In most cases, the foundation for constructing a one-story house a depth of 50 to 100 cm. The bottom of the trench is checked water level. Not allowed elevation changes. To perform the work using an excavator or a shovel. In operation only the specialized equipment used in the winter season.
4. At the next stage the foundation cushion. This element is optional and the function of reducing the load on the foundation with the displacement of soil. At the bottom of the trench is laid sand, a minimum thickness of 15 cm. With this, every 3 cm sand carefully ram special tool and aligned on a water level. This is followed by a layer of gravel, performing a moisture removal function. Macadam laid on a roofing waterproofing or polyethylene film.
5. The construction of the formwork - the next process. For its manufacture using metal, wood or plastic. In winter, the formwork is made only from plastic. Formwork above the surface for at least thirty centimeters. Inside the casing installed rope, indicating the level of the foundation poured. At this stage, set water and sewer pipes.
6. Implementation of reinforcement. The quality of the execution of the process depends directly on the foundation of the strength and duration of the operation of the building. Inside the trench stack of metal rods connected by a special wire. Type of bars and their number are determined individually for each building.
Upon completion of the reinforcement should be immediately concrete foundation pouring process solution.
Recommendations and instructions for filling the foundation with his own hands
There are two variants of pouring the foundation:
Each has certain advantages and disadvantages. There are three types of partial filling:
This method is used in the private house-building less than a full fill. This is due to the complexity of its implementation, the need for individual calculations of time intervals.
For strip foundation is used horizontal or vertical shading. On the foundation of strength after the casting affects primarily the right reinforcement. And the calculation of the number of layers and the time of their seizure.
Before the start of the partial fill, define a method of performing work, do the drawing which clearly defines each of the layers and their setting time. Divide the area into several parts, in relation to the casting method.
Complete casting of the foundation is used more often. The result is an integral monolithic coating which has excellent performance. Concrete solution made immediately prior to casting. Evenly composition of the trench, remove voids special device or vibrator on concrete.
Solid foundation, made by completely filling has such advantages:
- no need for complex and lengthy operations;
- soil resistance to seasonal changes;
- high level of strength - Resistance to deformation.
Given the choice between partial and complete filling of the foundation under the house, be sure to stop at the first version.
Pouring the foundation Video: