Summer frosts, strong winds, tropical heat are considered to be a typical phenomenon in the middle lane. Protect against disasters of nature and their crops in temperature, you can use a covering material, which helps to maintain the desired temperature and the safeguard of fruit and vegetables from the cold, refresh and protect the plant from drying out. However, along with the temperature and humidity for the plant growth is of great importance lighting. The correct application of light and shade help cottagers achieve the best results.
Table of contents:
- greenhouse lighting
- types of plants
- Lamps for greenhouses
- plants pritenenie
- Methods shading
- pritenyayut screens
- irrigation organization
- capillary system
- drip irrigation system
One of the important conditions for plant growth and development is the light. Culture only in good light obtained sufficient energy for photosynthesis. In various instances of different needs for lighting, and everything depends primarily on the grade, phase of development and the growing season.
types of plants
When installing a greenhouse or a greenhouse construction with his own hands, it is desirable to take into account its location relative to the cardinal. To Galicia received during the day natural light, it is better to put it in the direction of the south → north, glass roof slopes at the same time will be directed to the west and south. This allows light to fall into the room on one side and half on the other half. In this way the set greenhouse plants develop evenly without distortion in all directions.
But in the early spring, in the autumn and the cold of winter daylight hours it is not long, it is not suitable for normal growth of vegetables fruit crops, herbs and flowers. This can cause a significant reduction in yield or reduction of terms of flowering, and can even cause death rastyuhi. To avoid such disastrous results, it is recommended to extend the daylight hours and provide crops as much light as you need them.
However, keep in mind that different types of plants for the duration of the day react differently. There are two types of plants: the culture of the long daylight hours (onions, cabbage, garlic, root vegetables) and copies of the short daylight hours (eggplant, peppers, beans, squash, tomatoes).
The first type requires illumination, the length of which is greater than 12 hours, and the second type of light requires 8 - 10 hours a day.
It is very important to follow the proper lighting mode, because the flowering ornamentals in this case may not bloom, but only drive the vegetative mass; Conversely roots will bloom like a flower bed, but did not give a crop at all; greens (lettuce, dill, onion pen) expel arrows.
To greenhouses to extend the daylight hours, you need to install additional lighting. But before you buy bulbs need to calculate the price of building greenhouses and carry out electrical wiring. Firstly, you need to build a greenhouse to the main cable. It is accepted to do or underground method, or air at a safe height.
Second, the wiring is installed in the greenhouse. For this fit the cable, which has a cross-section diameter of at least 2 squares. Better if the cable is of two colors - one color for the phase, and the other - to zero. It is also necessary to stock up flexi hose, which hide the wires. After all the wires should be connected to the separate boards, which connect all electrical appliances.
Third, in the greenhouse should accommodate the desired number of sockets that have fuses, which are recommended to provide for rapid de-energization of all greenhouse breaker switch. When assembling the wiring should not be forgotten that the greenhouse acts room with high humidity, however necessarily insulate all wire connections. The lighting apparatus must be moisture resistant.
Lamps for greenhouses
Produce a great variety of lamps for greenhouses, which differ in purpose and price, the radiation intensity and spectrum. The main advantage of fluorescent lamps can be seen on video on the construction of greenhouses. It lies in the fact that they are not heated, so did not affect the temperature in the greenhouse. The emission spectrum is considered to be favorable for the plants. Better to take the lamp LD or MDC, the spectrum of which is dominated by blue light, which are necessary for the process of photosynthesis. Another advantage in their favor is considered economical power consumption.
In different periods of the growing season for best lighting greenhouses are the sodium lamps. For the growth of green mass are best suited lamp Drize on spectral emission, but the flowering and fruiting, they are not suitable. For these purposes it is necessary to buy a HPS lamps that provide greater energy plants during fruiting.
Energy-saving lamps are suitable for any crop development phases, it is only necessary to find the right range. During the period of select blue ECL spectrum during the flowering and fruiting give preference ECL red spectrum. These lamps are economical and easy to use, because the unit fitted with a built-in ballast.
Metal halide lamps are considered the most perfect lighting for fruit and vegetable crops. They are characterized by large capacity, suitable emission spectrum, a significant resource exploitation. The disadvantage of these products is their cost - they are quite expensive.
If the early spring to late autumn months and the cold of winter gardeners strive to provide the plant cultivated in the greenhouse, the maximum illuminance in the warm time of year in the greenhouse gets too much radiant heat and solar energy. Without the use of various methods of shading crops may stop growing and even die. Measures for shading should be done together with the provision of irrigation and ventilation.
If the building is equipped with an efficient ventilation system, pritenenii plant might not need. If cultivated in a greenhouse specimens with different needs in the light, under the species that require intense lighting, it is worth to place shade-loving culture. It should be remembered that an excessive amount of light is observed in the cultures of the leaves turn red. This signals their need shading.
Plants pritenyayut internal and external means. This will provide three methods: a paint coat clear coating, spray the protective liquid on the glass surface that will prevent penetration of light in a greenhouse, a greenhouse or close by using the light of a material.
As pritenyayut liquid formerly used lime whitewash or diluted with water emulsion paint. However, these substances have a major drawback: they have to at the end of the summer season to scrape through the use of a stiff brush, and this work is very time-consuming and require valuable time.
At the moment, we developed compounds that can be easily removed from the painted surface, but along with this they do not wash off in the rain. However, the layer of such a substance capable of gradually becomes thinner and loses its protective properties, and from time to time necessary to update. Perform such work should only in sunny dry weather.
The disadvantage of using liquid pritenyayut means lies in the fact that the substances remain permanently on the cover, so plants in cloudy weather are beginning to feel the lack of heat and light. In connection with this trend, it is best to use shading internal and external screens.
Pritenyayut screens which can be installed inside and outside the greenhouse, at any moment they can be rolled, if necessary. Venetian blinds can be hung just inside the greenhouse space. Watch the video, how to make the greenhouse and how to install pritenyayut screens. External screens may reduce the light transmission of clear coat greenhouse and prevent excessive temperature increase inside the building. Furthermore, during spring frosts similar devices produce reliable protection for plants.
Pritenyayut screens that are installed inside the greenhouse space are less effective than external devices. They reduce the light intensity, but passed together with the heat in the greenhouse, due to the construction in which the temperature rises.
In addition, the internal screen is inconvenient to use in those buildings protected ground where they grow ornamental plants with large flowers and leaves. Therefore, preference should be given their location on the outside of the greenhouse, and that they do not damage the strong gusts of wind, it is necessary to ensure their fixation to the frame of the greenhouse.
The most effective pritenyayut screens that are made of wood or plastic slats. They last a long time, easily cleaned and straightened. Although between some slats of such structures and runs a little light, but the culture it does not cause any harm, because during the day the angle of incidence of the rays changes slowly. Furthermore, well-proven screens which are in the form of white plastic shutters.
If your garden site do you visit often, it makes sense to the process of raising and lowering the screen to automate, to provide the device engine with built-in light sensors that are able to regulate the operation of the system. In addition to shading, you can use the materials at hand: a light-tight plastic film and burlap, which is customarily fastened on the outside of the building.
Watering in the greenhouse has its own characteristics. If properly organize it, from a lack of or excess moisture the plants may die. Watering crops using a watering can or hose with a time-consuming and energy. In this regard, in the greenhouse better to arrange an automatic watering system.
For crops that are grown in pots is better suited capillary irrigation system, the principle of which is based on the action of capillary force of wet sand. The narrow gaps that are formed between the individual particles, the water rises and flows into the pots through the drainage holes.
For capillary system device should be laid on the bottom rack, pallet or cuvette polyethylene film, and then place it on a layer of sand which has a thickness of 5 - 8 centimeters. The surface must be watered regularly from a watering can or provide hydration using an automatic device made of inverted upside down bottle with a nozzle, which is fixed in a special holder.
The sand is moistened with water from a bottle as it dries. A more sophisticated device is a pressure vessel which is connected to a central water supply system. After the opening of the special valve water flows in the sand.
Top need to set the pots and bury their rotational motions about 3 centimeters in such a way as to completely fill the sand drains.
drip irrigation system
Water the plants is also using tubular systems. Among them, the greatest popularity has received drip irrigation system. It is a system of pipes, which pass over the racks of pipes, and in which there are holes that are located on every plant in the garden or on the pot. Each port can be connected thin tube. Or may be provided with a nozzle hole.
This technique is well suited for those crops that require constant soil moisture. water supply source to be connected to a timer and solenoid valve with to ensure the correct flow of water within a specific period of time.
When you practice a drip irrigation system, it is advisable to periodically inspect each plant. Drip irrigation helps to ensure that all plants the same amount of water regardless of the individual species preferences. As a result, some parts of the earth may be excessively humidified, the rest - too dry.
Shortcomings have to be corrected manually, you need to water those plants, the soil under which turned out to be a little dry, and those crops that do not need the moisture, can be temporarily disconnected from the general system of drip irrigation and wait until the soil underneath is dry, then should resume their continuous watering .
Thus, after you have done the greenhouse from the profile, and covered her chosen material, it is possible to proceed to the arrangement of lighting and shading in the greenhouse and irrigation system is very important in the greenhouse. A separate item should set the organization watering plants arranged in pots and beds.